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ASP.NET MVC 3 Hosting :: Working with ASP.Net MVC 3 Razor View Engine and Syntax Highlighting

clock January 25, 2011 14:38 by author Administrator

Today, we found a good answer on syntax highlighting for Razor. In the Visual Studio Gallery located at, a new Visual Studio extension has been recently added for a “Razor Syntax Highlighter”.

To leverage this new extension, we had to remove the editor mapping for .cshtml files in the Visual Studio Text Editor/File Extensions window and install the highlighter extension. As you see in the figure below, it worked great. This new extension uses the Razor Parser libraries to appropriately highlight the Razor code.

Figure 1 - Syntax Highlighting Visual studio 2010 Add-on

Unfortunately, this feature is offered as a Visual Studio Extension and hence is only available for paid-for Visual Studio 2010 editions.

Looking at the Razor Syntax, one can summarize it as a means to short-hand the <%= %> used in ASPX pages to designate code sections. For Razor, only a simple @ sign is used in-place of that bulky aforementioned code markup . Additionally, the Razor parser introduces helpful intelligence that makes the syntax even more user-friendly. For instance the following is a code block you would see in an ASPX page:

       <input type="hidden" value="istrue"/>

The corresponding Razor block for this snippet would be:

       <input type="hidden" value="istrue"/>

The Razor syntax has simply “inferred” that the code will have a closing curly bracket without us having to apply any special markup tags to it. This further reduces the markup needed to accomplish the same task.

An important difference between Razor and ASPX View Engines is the absence of master pages for the earlier. Razor simply provides a _ViewStart.cshtml to bootstrap our application layout.

    Layout = "~/Views/Shared/_Layout.cshtml";

Latest Razor Beta does however support Partial rendering (RenderPartial) to explicitly render a Partial View as well as calling @RenderBody() which loads the actual view content to be served.

Next, we will be talking about creating an MVC project with dual support for ASPX/Razor View Engines as well as further explore the Razor syntax.

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WCF Hosting :: Guidelines to WCF Versioning

clock January 9, 2011 16:01 by author Administrator


Services exist in order to serve external clients. They do so by exposing a wide range of external interfaces which are later used by the clients to interact with the service.

After initial deployment, and potentially several times during their lifetime, services may need to be changed for a variety of reasons, such as changing business needs, re-factorization of code, or to address other issues.

Each change introduces a new version of the service. Each new service version potentially introduces changes to the external interfaces exposed by the service.

Our goal, as developers, is to be able to freely change our service internals (and sometimes, when needed, external interfaces), and on the same time, allow existing and new clients to keep using the service.

In order to do so, we need to form a set of versioning guidelines.

This article will cover basic concepts related to versioning issues and will provide a set of guidelines which aim to provide a simple solution for the versioning problem domain.

All the information exists freely on the Internet. We didn’t invent anything new. We just gathered most of the information in one simple blog post, for your convenience.

A lot of the guidelines below were taken from an excellent set of MSDN articles: and These articles are very good reading material.  

Reduce the Problem Domain

Services interact with external services in many different ways. They can use WCF to send and receive information. They can connect to external databases directly (by using ADO.NET, for example) and many more.

Instead of forming a set of guidelines for each protocol, the simplest way is to reduce the problem domain to one protocol and use only one set of guidelines for this protocol.

For example, instead of connecting to a database directly, it is possible to create an abstraction layer on top of the database, which will expose WCF interface to the clients. This layer will be upgraded together with the database, creating a coupling between this layer and the database. The exposed WCF interface will follow the versioning guidelines that we will mention later, thus keeping all the clients compatible with the database service, even when it is being upgraded.

To sum it up, if you like the WCF versioning guidelines that we’ll mention later on, use WCF interfaces whenever possible to expose your service functionality.  

Versioning Terminology

Strict Versioning – In many scenarios when a change is required to an external interface, the service developer does not have control over the clients and therefore cannot make assumptions about how they would react to changes in the message XML or schema. The recommended approach in such scenarios is to treat existing data contracts as immutable and create new data contracts (with unique XML qualified names) instead.

Lax Versioning – In many other scenarios, the service developer can make the assumption that adding a new, optional member to the data contract will not break existing clients. This requires the service developer to investigate whether existing clients are not performing schema validation and that they ignore unknown data members. In these scenarios, it is possible to take advantage of data contract features for adding new members in a non-breaking way. WCF support Lax versioning: that is, they do not throw exceptions for new unknown data members in received data, unless requested otherwise.

When a connection is made between a client and a server of a different version, and a strict versioning is used, the client won’t be able to connect to a service of a different version. When lax versioning is used, the client will be able to connect and it is up to the developer to handle backward and forward compatibility.  

Client\Server Paradigm

In a client\server world, a client sends requests to a server, which, in turn, responds back to the client.

When versioning is introduced into the system, we may encounter the following scenarios:

Client and server use the same version.
Client is older than the server.
Client is newer than the server.

Each scenario should be handled separately, but there is one rule which applies to all: Newer element knows more than older element, therefore, newer elements should be the more proactive elements in the versioning game.

This means the following:

Client and server use the same version – No problem here. Communication will work as expected.

Client is older than the server – The server should support both older and current clients. When Lax Versioning is used, the server is allowed to add new data members and new operations (according to Lax guidelines which will be described later on). It must expose the same WCF service, on the same contract with the same name and namespace. When Strict Versioning is used, the server must expose (at least) two WCF services (and WCF contracts). The first is the new WCF service, on the new contract with a new namespace and name, and the rest are all the supported old WCF services with their original contacts, namespaces and names.

Client is newer than the server – The client must avoid using unsupported operations on an older server. When Lax versioning is used, the client is not allowed to call new operations (which don’t exist on the server side). When Strict versioning is used, the client must use a WCF endpoint which exposes a contract matching the one used by the server. In both approaches, the client must know the version of the server. This is performed by some kind a version discovery mechanism (more on this below).  

Note – If an element acts both as a client and as a server, it is very reasonable that it would suffer from both issues above, during the upgrade period. This means that it will probably have a local client newer than a remote server and a local server newer than a remote client. In these situations, each direction should be handled separately.    

Version Discovery Basics

When a client is newer than the server, as we already know, it must protect itself when communicating with an older server.

For example, if Lax versioning is used, the client should be responsible not to call new operations which are not supported by the server.

When Strict versioning is used, it should find a matching contract, support by the server, to communicate on.

In order to do that, the client must discover the server’s version. This is called Version Discovery.

There are several ways to discover the server’s version:

Get Version API – The server should expose its version somehow. The client should use this API to discover the server’s version before attempting to communicate with the server.

Fallback – The client tries to communicate with the server with the newest contract version known to the client, and falls back to older versions when the communication fails until it finds a contract version match (of course, this can only work with Strict versioning).

Configuration – The server version is stored somewhere in local configuration and the client can read it before attempting to connect to the server.   

Versioning Guidelines

So far we had a long introduction to the versioning world. It’s time to actually discuss some actual versioning guidelines.

First we will try to understand when to use Lax versioning and when to use Strict versioning. Later on, we will provide a set of guidelines for each versioning schema.

When building a complex system, involving multiple machines working together to expose one big external service, we can distinguish between two types of communication flows, inner communication an external communication.

Inner Communication – This covers all communication flows between the system’s machines. In such systems, usually, the developers have control on all components involved in the communication flows. Therefore, the natural versioning schema should be Lax versioning. As a reminder, Lax versioning can be used when we know something about the involved components and can enforce several assumptions on them. Of course, if we can’t make these assumptions, or if we require huge contract changes which can’t be covered by the Lax versioning guidelines (which will be covered later on), we can always fallback to Strict versioning.

External Communication – This covers all communication between internal endpoints (controlled by the system developers) to external endpoints (not controlled by the system developers, naturally). Since we don’t control one side of the conversation, Strict versioning is the only way to go. This means that whenever a new version is available, we create a new contract to represent it, while keeping the old contract intact. We must publish both the new contract and the old contract (or contracts, if we want to support several versions back) simultaneously. We might also consider providing some assistance in terms of providing some version discovery mechanisms. If clients are newer than the server, they will have to use one of the version discovery mechanisms to survive.   

Lax Versioning Guidelines

The guidelines are divided to service contract guidelines and data contract guidelines.

Lax Service Contract:

Namespace and Name – DO NOT change namespace or name between versions. Do not add namespace or name, if the contract didn’t have namespace or name in the previous version (unless you want to add the default namespace and name)

Operations Addition – Adding service operations exposed by the service can be considered as a non-breaking change because existing (older) clients need not be concerned about those new operations. Newer clients must use version discovery methods before contacting an older server and avoid calling new operations. If version discovery is impossible, adding operations is considered as a breaking change (strict).

Operations Removal – Removing operations is considered to be a breaking change and therefore, NOT ALLOWED. To make such a change, strict versioning should be used (define a new service contract and expose it on a new endpoint). It is still possible to remove operations, but this can be performed only after the versioning difference between a client and a server exceeds the maximum allowed by the system (for example, we support only one version back and we now upgrade to version N+2).

Operation Parameters Types – Changing parameter types or return types generally is considered to be a breaking change unless the new type implements the same data contract implemented by the old type. Other type changes are NOT ALLOWED. To make such changes, add a new operation to the service contract or use strict versioning.

Operation Parameters Addition/Removal – Adding or removing an operation parameter is a breaking change, therefore, it is NOT ALLOWED. To make such a change, add a new operation to the service contract or use strict versioning.

Operation Parameters Aggregation – It is recommended to use one aggregated data contract as an operation parameter, rather than separate multiple parameters. By using a data contract as aggregated parameter, while keeping the Lax guidelines for data contracts (see below), it is easier to keep an operation backward compatible. It is possible to change internal parameters without being limited to the above restrictions.

Fault Contracts – The list of faults described in a service’s contract is not considered exhaustive. At any time, an operation may return faults that are not described in its contract. Therefore changing the set of faults described in the contract is not considered a breaking change. For example, adding a new fault to the contract using the FaultContractAttribute or removing an existing fault from the contract is allowed.

Lax Data Contract:

Namespace and Name – DO NOT change namespace or name between versions. Do not add namespace or name, if the contract didn’t have namespace or name in the previous version (unless you want to add the default namespace and name)

Data Contract Names - In later versions, DO NOT change the data contract name or namespace. If changing the name or namespace of the type underlying the data contract, be sure to preserve the data contract name and namespace by using the appropriate mechanisms, such as the Name property of the DataContractAttribute.

Data Members Names – In later versions, DO NOT change the names of any data members. If changing the name of the field, property, or event underlying the data member, use the Name property of the DataMemberAttribute to preserve the existing data member name.

Data Members Types – In later versions, DO NOT change the type of any field, property, or event underlying a data member such that the resulting data contract for that data member changes. Keep in mind that interface types are equivalent to Object for the purposes of determining the expected data contract.

Data Members Addition – In later versions, new data members can be added. They should always follow these rules:

a. The IsRequired property should always be left at its default value of false.
b. If a default value of null or zero for the member is unacceptable, a callback method should be provided using the OnDeserializingAttribute to provide a reasonable default in case the member is not present in the incoming stream.
c. The Order property on the DataMemberAttribute should be used to make sure that all of the newly added data members appear after the existing data members. The recommended way of doing this is as follows: None of the data members in the first version of the data contract should have their Order property set. All of the data members added in version 2 of the data contract should have their Order property set to 2. All of the data members added in version 3 of the data contract should have their Order set to 3, and so on. It is permissible to have more than one data member set to the same Order number.

Data Members Order – In later versions, DO NOT change the order of the existing data members by adjusting the Order property of the DataMemberAttribute attribute.

Data Members Removal – DO NOT remove data members in later versions, even if the IsRequired property was left at its default property of false in prior versions.

Data Members IsRequired –
a. DO NOT change the IsRequired property on any existing data members from version to version.
b. For required data members (where IsRequired is true), DO NOT change the EmitDefaultValue property from version to version.

Branching – DO NOT attempt to create branched versioning hierarchies. That is, there should always be a path in at least one direction from any version to any other version using only the changes permitted by these guidelines. For example, if version 1 of a Person data contract contains only the Name data member, you should not create version 2a of the contract adding only the Age member and version 2b adding only the Address member. Going from 2a to 2b would involve removing Age and adding Address; Going in the other direction would entail removing Address and adding Age. Removing members is not permitted by these guidelines.

Known Types – You should generally not create new subtypes of existing data contract types in a new version of your application. Likewise, you should not create new data contracts that are used in place of data members declared as Object or as interface types. For example, in version 1 of your application, you may have the LibraryItem data contract type with the Book and Newspaper data contract subtypes. LibraryItem would then have a known types list that contains Book and Newspaper. Suppose you now add a Magazine type in version 2 which is a subtype of LibraryItem. If you send a Magazine instance from version 2 to version 1, the Magazine data contract is not found in the list of known types and an exception is thrown. Creating these new classes is allowed only when you know that you can add the new types to the known types list of all instances of your old application or if newer instances use version discovery and will not send new types to an old server.

Enumerations – DO NOT add or remove enumeration members between versions. You should also not rename enumeration members; unless you use the Name property on the EnumMemberAttribute attribute to keep their names in the data contract model the same.

Inheritance –

DO NOT attempt to version data contracts by type inheritance. To create later versions, either change the data contract on an existing type (Lax) or create a new unrelated type (Strict).

The use of inheritance together with data contracts is allowed, provided that inheritance is not used as a versioning mechanism and that certain rules are followed. If a type derives from a certain base type, do not make it derive from a different base type in a future version (unless it has the same data contract). There is one exception to this: you can insert a type into the hierarchy between a data contract type and its base type, but only if it does not contain data members with the same names as other members in any possible versions of the other types in the hierarchy. In general, using data members with the same names at different levels of the same inheritance hierarchy can lead to serious versioning problems and therefore, it is prohibited.

Collections – Collections are interchangeable in the data contract model. This allows for a great degree of flexibility. However, make sure that you do not inadvertently change a collection type in a non-interchangeable way from version to version. For example, do not change from a non-customized collection (that is, without the CollectionDataContractAttribute attribute) to a customized one or a customized collection to a non-customized one. Also, do not change the properties on the CollectionDataContractAttribute from version to version. The only allowed change is adding a Name or Namespace property if the underlying collection type’s name or namespace has changed and you need to make its data contract name and namespace the same as in a previous version.

Round Tripping – In some scenarios, there is a need to “round-trip” unknown data that comes from members added in a new version. For example, a “versionNew” service sends data with some newly added members to a “versionOld” client. The client ignores the newly added members when processing the message, but it resends that same data, including the newly added members, back to the versionNew service. The typical scenario for this is data updates where data is retrieved from the service, changed, and returned. If the data contract is expected to be used in a round tripping scenario, then starting with the first version of a data contract, always implement IExtensibleDataObject to enable round-tripping. If you have released one or more versions of a type without implementing this interface, it is usually recommended to implement it in the next version of the type.  

Strict Versioning Guidelines

Strict versioning guidelines are also divided into service contract and data contract guidelines, although they are very similar.

Strict Service Contract:

Namespace and Name – At least one of the namespace or name MUST be changed in later version, in order to break the contract compatibility. If the contract didn’t have namespace or name in previous version, namespace and name must be added to the contract (and must have different values than the default values)

Cascading Break – If a service contract exposes a data contract directly or via operations parameters or return value, and this data contract compatibility is broken (namespace or name replaced), then the service is also broken and MUST be treated as such, thus, a new contract should be created.

Immutability – When breaking a service contract, a new service contract MUST be created with a unique Namespace and Name, while the old contract MUST be kept intact and treated as immutable.

Strict Data Contract:

Namespace and Name – At least one of the namespace or name MUST be changed in later version, in order to break the contract compatibility. If the contract didn’t have namespace or name in previous version, namespace and name MUST be added to the contract (and must have different values than the default values)

Immutability – When breaking a data contract, a new data contract MUST be created with a unique Namespace and Name, while the old contract MUST be kept intact and treated as immutable.

Cascading Break – If a data contract is contained in a different data contract or exposed by a service contract directly or indirectly, and this data contract compatibility is broken (namespace or name replaced), then all contracts containing or exposing this data contract MUST be broken as well

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